The dielectric of liquid electrolytic capacitors is liquid electrolyte: liquid particles are very active at high temperatures and have a low boiling point relative to the internal pressure of the capacitor, making it easily explosible. The solid-state capacitance is made of polymer dielectric: at high temperatures, the particle growth and behavior of solid particles are lower than that of liquid electrolytes, and its boiling point will reach 350 degrees Celsius, making it almost impossible to burst.
The ESR of solid-state capacitance in high-frequency operation is shown to be very weak, and the conductivity is very fine. It has the properties of lowering impedance and producing less heat, which is the most obvious between 100KHz and 10MHz.
Traditional electrolytic capacitance is easily influenced by the operating environment's temperature and humidity, and it is less stable at high and low temperatures. The ESR of the solid capacitance can be as low as 0.0040.005 ohms between minus 55 and 105 degrees Celsius, but the electrolytic capacitance varies with temperature.
In terms of capacitance values, liquid capacitance would be lower than the indicated capacitance value below 20 degrees Celsius, and the lower the temperature, the lower the capacitance value. At minus 20 degrees Celsius, capacitance decreases by around 13%, and at minus 55 degrees Celsius, capacitance decreases by 37%. Since solid capacitance decreases by less than 5% at minus 55 degrees, solid state capacitors are guaranteed not to be harmed by lower temperatures. The low-frequency response of solid-state capacitance is not as good as electrolytic capacitance.
In other words, a motherboard with all-solid-state capacitance is not the most reasonable. Whether solid or electrolytic capacitors, their main function is to filter clutter, so long as the capacity and quality of capacitance can reach certain requirements, it can also ensure a stable operation. Solid-state capacitors at 105C have the same lifetime as electrolytic capacitors for 2000 hours.
When the temperature drops, their lives increase, but the solid-state capacitors increase even more. In general, the operational temperature of the capacitor is 70 degrees or less. In addition, the service life of solid-state capacitance can last 23 years, almost six times than the electrolytic capacitance. Compared with electrolytic capacitors, the capacity of electrolytic capacitors is much larger than that of solid capacitors at the same volume and voltage.
At present, solid capacitors are mostly used in the CPU power supply of computer motherboard, but the capacity redundancy is very little, it is necessary to improve the switching frequency of the part of the CPU power supply. Both solid and electrolytic capacitors will have the problem of capacity attenuation in the process of use. However, although the capacity of the circuit board with solid-state capacitance fluctuates slightly, the power supply will appear ripples, which will cause the CPU to work improperly.
Therefore, the lifetime of the solid-state capacitor is very high theoretically, but not in practice. Maintenance when using solid-state capacitor computer board: the power supply part of the CPU is often connected with multiple capacitors, so the solid-state capacitance will not have deformation, explosive slurry, leakage, etc. There is no way to determine which one is out of order basically. Therefore, in maintenance, one of them is often removed (no matter good or bad), and a large-capacity capacitor can be replaced (often with electrolytic capacitance). This method can usually solve the problem quickly.
In theory, the lifetime of the solid-state capacitor is very long, but there will still be a lot of faults in the process of practical use. At present, it seems that most motherboards with overclocking as the selling point put forward by many manufacturers will use solid-state capacitors. But it is not the capacitance that determines the performance of the CPU. The design of the circuit, the development of BIOS, the quality of the CPU itself, and the heat dissipation measures may determine the success or failure of the CPU.